Banana is a globally important fruit crop with 97.5 million tons of production. In India, it supports the livelihood of millions of people. With a total annual production of 16.91 million tones from 490.70 thousand has., with a national average of 33.5 T/ha. Maharashtra ranks first in production with 60 T/ha. Banana contributes 37% to total fruit production in India.

Agro Climate
Banana is a tropical crop, grows well in the temperature range of 13ºC – 38ºC with RH regime of 75-85%. In India, this crop is being cultivated in climate ranging from humid tropical to dry mild subtropics through the selection of appropriate varieties like Grandnaine. Chilling injury occurs at temperatures below 12ºC. The normal growth of the banana begins at 18ºC, reaches optimum at 27ºC, then declines and comes to a halt at 38ºC. Higher temperature causes sun scorching. The high-velocity wind, which exceeds 80 km phrs damages the crop.

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Soil for banana should have good drainage, adequate fertility, and moisture. Deep, rich loamy soil with pH between 6-7.5 are most preferred for banana cultivation. Ill drained, poorly aerated and nutritionally deficient soils are not suitable for banana. Saline solid, calcareous soil is not suitable for Banana cultivation. Avoided soil of low lying areas, very sandy & heavy black cotton with ill drainage.

Veriaty : Grande Naine

Land Preparation
Before planting banana, grow the green manuring crop like dhaincha, cowpea etc. and bury it in the soil. The land can be ploughed 2-4 times and leveled. Use rotavator or harrow to break the clod and bring the soil to a fine tilt. During soil preparation, the basal dose of FYM is added and thoroughly mixed into the soil

Planting Time
Mrig Baug (Kharif) Month of planting June – July
Kande Baug (Rabi) Month of planting October – November.

Planting Distance : 6X6 or 6X5 or 7X5

Methods of Planting
1.82m x 1.52m is being recommended, it accommodates 1452 plants per acre (3630 plants per hectare) keeping.
The region like north India, coastal belt and where humidity is very high and temp falls down upto 5-7ºC, the planting distance should not be less than 2.1m x 1.5m.

Irrigate the plants immediately after planting. Apply sufficient water and maintain field capacity. Excess irrigation will lead to root zone congestion due to the removal of air from soil pores, thereby affecting plant establishment and growth. And hence drip method is a must for proper water management in Banana.

Tissue banana plant requires a large number of mineral nutrients to maintain high yield in commercial plantations. Banana plants need a total of 16 essential plant nutrients to grow. Among 16 C, H and O are readily supplied by air and water remains applied through fertilizer.

In tissue culture, banana flowering starts 8 to 10 months after planting and the bunch becomes ready within 3 to 4 months after flowering. The total duration of planting to harvesting time will be maxed of 11 -12 months.

Advantage of Tissue Culture

    • Plants are selected from high yielding clones.
    • Plants are micro propagated under optimal conditions.
    • Plants are free from diseases and pests.
    • Plants are flexibility in accordance with the planting season and marketing demand.
    • Fruit bunches are dense, and compact, having well shape fingers for better marketability.
    • Integration of 3 crops from tissue culture with advanced growth ensures highly profitable plantation.
Tissue culture plants in India


Sugarcane is indigenous to tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. Sugarcane is an important agro-industrial crop. It is grown in two distinct agro-climatic regions: the tropical and subtropical. Sugarcane is the most remunerative crop and has a very high economic biomass to total biomass ratio. its requirements for water and fertilizers are equally high.

Agro Climate
Sugarcane cultivation requires a tropical or temperate climate, with a minimum of 60 centimeters (24 in) of annual moisture. Sugarcane grows in humid and hot weather.

Sugarcane grows extremely well in medium to heavy, well-drained soils of pH 7.5 to 8.5 and high organic matter content. Waterlogged soils or soils of poor drainage are not suitable. Growth of sugarcane will be poor in light, sandy soils. Gypsum /Sulfur is used for reclaiming highly alkaline soils

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Veriaty : 86032

Land Preparation
Sugarcane roots penetrate to 70-80 cm deep in the soil; hence, initial tillage is very important. The older stumps must be removed and destroyed. The bad soil must be reclaimed by fertile well-drained soil and decomposed FYM. Usually, ridge and furrow method is used in planting. A seedling raised in polybags are planted at a distance of 30 cms apart.

Planting Time
Adsali: This planting is done during July-August in the south, and the crop takes about 15 to 18 months for harvesting. 2.
Autumn: This planting is popular in India, which is done during October-November.
Eksali: This planting is common in south India, and the crop is planted during January-February.
Spring. The planting, in this case, is done during February-March in north India.

Planting Distance: 6X6 or 6X5 or 7X5 Feet

Methods of Planting
Flat Beds: In this method, the furrows of about 40-50 cm depth are opened with the help of double mouldboard plough or furrowers at 90 cm distance
Ridge and furrow method.
Trench method or Java method.
Rayungan method.
Wider row/Paired row plantation.

Sugar cane did not need particularly fertile soil and provided it is kept warm (18°C), and in a light place, it is not very difficult to grow. Keep the plants well watered, and you should find they increase rapidly. An approximate 2000 mm of water per hectare is applied.

For fertigation NPK in the ratio of 100:45:45 kgs /acre are required.apart from that micronutrients such as borax 2-2.5 kgs /acre, magnesium sulphate 50-60 kgs/acre, ferrous sulphate 10-12kgs /acre and zinc sulphate 10-15 kgs /acre are required.

Cultural Practices
Sugarcane planting takes place from late August through January. The hardened plants are brought to the field after light trimming of the leaves and planted one per pit without disturbing the root-soil mass. The field is irrigated immediately after planting, and the next irrigations are given on the third day. Subsequently, weekly irrigation is given until the first new leaf emerges, which is an indication of successful establishment. The first dose of fertilizer (100 kg N+ 40 kg K2O/ha) is applied at 45 days and the second dose of (a)(b)same composition at 90 days followed by a good earthing up. Off-types, if any, are rouged out at 180 to 200 days of planting. Establishment of the tissue culture raised plants in the field is above 95 percent if proper maintenance and irrigation schedules are followed.

Crop stands in the field for 12-18 months. Sugarcane is harvested from late-October through mid-April. Typically, a sugarcane field is replanted every two to four years. After a field has been harvested the first time, it is maintained free of weeds, and the second crop of stalks, called a ratoon, grows from the old plant stubble. The second crop is harvested about one year after the first harvest. On average, 3 annual crops are harvested from one field before the field is replanted

Disease & Pest Management
After sugarcane planting, weeds are controlled through cultivation and herbicides


Pomegranate is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing between five and eight meters tall. The pomegranate is native to the Iranian Plateau and the Himalayas in north Pakistan and Northern India.

Agro Climate
Pomegranates prefer a semi-arid mild-temperate to subtropical climate and are naturally adapted to regions with cool winters and hot summers. A humid climate adversely affects the formation of fruit. The best climatic conditions are found in Middle East Asia. It is evergreen in the tropics and deciduous in the subtropics. A temperature of 38°C and a dry climate during fruit development produced the best quality fruits.

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The pomegranate does best in well-drained soil, though it can thrive in a wide variety of soils from acid loam to alkaline soil.


  • Ganesh : This variety is developed by the selection method. It is a prolific bearer, fruit very large, rind yellowish red,pinkish aril with soft seeds. It is the commercial cultivar of Maharashtra. The average yield ranges from 8-10 kg per tree.
  • Arakta : The fruits are smaller than Ganesh variety having dark red coloured arils with soft seeds.
  • Mrudula : This variety has all the characters of the Ganesh variety except the arils are dark red. The colour of the arils in ‘Ambe’ bahar and ‘Mrig’ bahar is dark red in colour while it is pink during the ‘Hasta’ bahar. The average fruit weight is 250-300 grams.
  • Muskat : The fruits of this variety have red rind with pink coloured arils. The fruit is with an average weight of 300-350 grams.
  • Jyoti :This variety was developed at IIHR, Bangalore. The fruits are large with attractive colour having dark red arils. The seeds are very soft with high pulp and juice contents. Fruits are borne on the inner side of the canopy and thus do not get damaged due to sun scorching.
  • Ruby : This variety is developed at IIHR, Bangalore. The mature fruits resemble cultivar ‘Ganesh’ with respect to shape and size. However, the rind of this variety is reddish-brown with green streaks containing bold red arils. The fruit weighs 270 g with an average yield of 16-18 tonnes/ha.
  • Dholka : Fruits large, rind yellowish red with pinkish white aril. It is a popular cultivar of Gujarat.

Land Preparation
Pomegranates should be placed in the sunniest, warmest part of the yard or orchard for the best fruit, although they will grow and flower in part shade. About 50 gm carbaryl dust is dusted on the bottom and sides of the pits as a precaution against termites. The pits are filled with topsoil mixed with 20 kg farmyard manure and 1 kg superphosphate. After filling the pit, watering is done to allow the soil to settle down. The spacing of 2.5 X 4.5 m.

Planting Time : Spacing of 2.5 X 4.5 m.

Methods of Planting
The best time of planting pomegranate in Northern India is dormant period, i.e. January to mid-February and in South India during the monsoon season.

For good fruit production, they must be irrigated. To establish new plants, they should be watered every 2 to 4 weeks during the dry season. The plants are tolerant of moderately saline water and soil conditions.

The trees are given 2 to 4-ounce applications of ammonium sulfate or other nitrogen fertilizer the first two springs. After that, very little fertilizer is needed, although the plants respond to an annual mulch of rotted manure or other compost.

Cultural Practices
If unpruned the pomegranate develops into a tree 15 to 20 feet in height, but it is easily kept to a bush of 6 to 12 feet. In the cooler parts of its range, the plants are deciduous. The 2- to 4- inch, undulating, shining green leaves are tapered at both ends.

The fruits are ripe when they have developed a distinctive colour and make a metallic sound when tapped. The fruits must be picked before over maturity when they tend to crack open, particularly when rained on. The fruits improve in storage, becoming juicier and more flavorful.

Disease & Paste Management
“Pomegranates are relatively free of most pests and diseases. Minor problems are leaf and fruit spot and foliar damage by whiteflies, thrips, mealybugs and scale insects. Pomegranate shrubs are one of the easiest fruits to work with since they are not usually affected by many pests or diseases. Diseases include leaf spot, fruit spot, twig dieback, dry rot and soft rot.”

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Pomegranate is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing between five and eight meters tall. The pomegranate is native to the Iranian Plateau and the Himalayas in north Pakistan and Northern India.

Agro Climate
Pomegranates prefer a semi-arid mild-temperate to subtropical climate and are naturally adapted to regions with cool winters and hot summers. A humid climate adversely affects the formation of fruit. The best climatic conditions are found in Middle East Asia. It is evergreen in the tropics and deciduous in the subtropics. A temperature of 38°C and a dry climate during fruit development produced the best quality fruits.

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Strawberry (Fragaria sp.) is a native of temperate regions, but varieties are available which can be cultivated in sub. Tropical climate. In India, it is generally cultivated in the hills. Its main centres of cultivation are Nainital (district) and Dehradun in Uttar Pradesh, Mahabaleshwar (Maharashtra), Kashmir Valley, Bangalore and Kalimpong (West Bengal). In recent years, strawberry is being cultivated successfully in plains of Maharashtra around Pune, Nashik and Sangli towns. The strawberry is the most widely adapted of the small fruits. Strawberries are grown throughout Europe, in every state of the United States, as well as in Canada and South America. The wide variation in climates within these regions and the wide adaptation of the strawberry plant permit harvesting and marketing, the fruit during the greater part of the year.

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